Copper is a transition element, chemical symbol Cu, English copper, atomic number 29. Pure copper is a soft metal. The surface is freshly cut red and orange with metallic luster. Ductility, thermal conductivity and conductivity are high, so the most commonly used materials, such as cables and electrical components, are also used as building materials, which can form many kinds of alloys. Copper alloys have excellent mechanical properties and low resistivity, the most important of which are bronze and brass. In addition, copper is also a durable metal that can be recycled without compromising its mechanical properties.
Bivalent copper salt is the most common copper compounds, the hydrated ion is blue, and chloride ligand is green, is the source of azurite and turquoise minerals such as color, was widely used as a pigment in history. Copper green (alkali carbonate) is produced when the copper structure is corroded. Decorative arts mainly use copper and copper pigments.
Copper is one of the earliest metals used by man. As early as prehistoric times, people began to excavate open copper mines and use the copper to make weapons, tools and other utensils, and the use of copper had a profound effect on the progress of early human civilization. Copper is a metal found in the earth's crust and oceans. Copper has a content of about 0.01% in the crust, and copper in individual copper deposits can reach 3% to 5%. Copper, in nature, is mostly found in compounds called copper ores.
Copper has a weak activity, and copper and copper sulfate can be replaced by copper. Copper is not soluble in non - oxidized acid.
The common value of copper is +1 and + 2.
Copper (I) is commonly known as cupric, and CuCl, Cu2O, Cu2S are all common copper compounds. [Cu(NH3)2]2- is the coordination ion of copper and ammonia, colorless, easy to be oxidized, dismutalized in acid solution, and generate Cu(II) and Cu.
Copper (II) is the most common form of copper, which can form salt with most common anions, such as the well-known copper sulfate, which has white water and blue pentahydrate. Alkali carbonate, also known as copper green, has several forms. Copper chloride and copper nitrate are also important copper salts.
Copper (II) can form a series of distribution ions such as Cu(H2O)4 (blue), CuCl4 (yellow green), Cu(NH3)4 (deep blue), etc., and their colors are not the same.
Common copper compound
Copper sulfate (five water, anhydrous and monohydrate), copper acetate (Cu (CH3COO) 2 · H2O), copper oxide (CuO) and cuprous oxide (Cu2O), copper chloride (CuCl2) and cuprous chloride (CuCl), nitric acid copper (Cu (NO3) 2), cyanide copper (Cu (CN) 2), fatty acid copper, copper naphthenate (C22H14CuO4), etc.
Classification and properties of copper ores:
The raw material of copper is copper ore. Copper ore can be divided into three categories:
The disulfide ore, such as chalcopyrite (CuFeS 2), copper deposit (Cu5FeS) and copper (Cu 2 S), etc.
The oxidation minerals, such as copper ore (Cu 2 O), malachite [Cu 2 (OH) 2), blue copper [2 cuco 3 Cu(OH) 2], silicon malachite (CuSiO 32h2 O), etc.
It's natural copper. Genesis of copper in copper content is around 1% (0.5% ~ 3%) had exploitation value, because the flotation method can remove impurities such as part of the gangue in the ore, and get high copper content (8% ~ 35%) concentrate.