Germanium is an important semiconductor material, in the semiconductor, Germanium aerospace monitoring and control, nuclear physics detection, optical fiber communication, infrared optics, solar cells, chemical catalysts, biomedical and other fields have a wide range of important applications. Germanium According to the US Geological Survey data show that the proportion of global germanium end users is as follows: fiber fiber 30%; infrared fiber 20%; polymerization catalyst 20%; electronic and solar devices 15% and other (phosphor, metallurgy, ) 15%.
As an infrared optical material, germanium has the advantages of high infrared refractive index, wide infrared transmission band, low absorption coefficient, low dispersion rate, easy processing, Germanium flash and corrosion. It is especially suitable for thermal imager and infrared Radar and other infrared optical devices, lenses, prisms and filters; high purity germanium or germanium lithium for astronomy γ-spectrometer, Germanium nuclear reaction spectrometer and plasma physics X-ray instrument; Si-Ge10 and Mercury, cadmium, copper and gallium germanium single crystal for infrared detectors.
Germanium semiconductor devices used as diodes, Germanium crystal transistors and composite transistors, germanium semiconductor optoelectronic devices for photoelectric, Hall and piezoresistive effect of the sensor, for the photoconductive effect of the radiation detector, widely used in color TV, Germanium computer, telephone and high frequency Equipment, germanium tube is particularly suitable for high-frequency high-power devices, and in strong radiation and -40 ℃ under normal operation; Ge-Si and Ge-Te for the generation of temperature for aerospace, Germanium satellite and space station starting power.
Germanium in the semiconductor device on the application has been largely replaced by silicon, only in high-frequency high-power devices have a certain amount, Germanium the other photoelectric avalanche diode with a larger amount.
The GaAs / Ge solar cells fabricated with germanium as the substrate have the same properties as GaAs / GaAs batteries, have higher mechanical strength and have a larger single cell area. Germanium In the space application environment, the anti-radiation threshold is higher than the silicon cell, the performance of the recession is small, the application cost close to the same power of the silicon panels, Germanium has been applied to all types of military satellites and some commercial satellites, and gradually become the main space power.
From the technical difficulty point of view, the upper reaches of the refining barriers to the lowest, but the environmental pressure is greatest; intermediate links deep processing technology is difficult, Germanium high purity germanium preparation process requirements, but also the industry chain more profitable part of the downstream applications due to the field Wide, technological progress is fast, Germanium to maintain sustained high profit more difficult, industry volatility. At present, the core of the germanium industry is still in the middle and lower reaches of the deep processing and application, if the main resource policy overweight led to production shrinkage, Germanium germanium resources will become a vital factor in industrial development.