Germanium is an important semiconductor material, in the semiconductor, aerospace monitoring and control, nuclear physics detection, Germanium optical fiber communication, infrared optics, solar cells, Germanium chemical catalysts, biomedical and other fields have a wide range of important applications. Germanium According to the US Geological Survey data show (2015) the proportion of global germanium end users as follows: fiber optic fiber 30%; infrared fiber 20%; polymerization catalyst 20%; electronic and solar devices 15% and other (phosphor, metallurgy, and chemotherapy ) 15%.
The germanium fiber has the advantages of large capacity, Germanium low optical loss, low dispersion, long transmission distance and no environmental interference. It is the only fiber that can be used in engineering. It is the main body of optical communication network. In addition, GeCl4 is also used for high speed Fiber optic network, links, fiber optic sensors, fiber-optic guidance and fiber-based devices, Germanium in recent years, rapid development.
As an infrared optical material, germanium has the advantages of high infrared refractive index, wide infrared transmission band, low absorption coefficient, low dispersion rate, Germanium easy processing, flash and corrosion. It is especially suitable for thermal imager and infrared Radar and other infrared optical devices, lenses, prisms and filters; high purity germanium or germanium lithium for astronomy γ-spectrometer, Germanium nuclear reaction spectrometer and plasma physics X-ray instrument; Si-Ge10 and Mercury, cadmium, Germanium copper and gallium germanium single crystal for infrared detectors.
Geoderme (GeO2) is a catalyst for the production of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), with long fibers, prepared by the beverage and edible liquid containers, non-toxic, Germanium transparent and air tightness. Electronic solar components Germanium semiconductor devices used as diodes, crystal transistors and composite transistors, germanium semiconductor optoelectronic devices for photoelectric, Hall and piezoresistive effect of the sensor, for the photoconductive effect of the radiation detector, widely used in color TV, computer, Germanium telephone And high-frequency equipment, germanium tube is particularly suitable for high-frequency high-power devices, and in strong radiation and -40 ℃ under normal operation; Ge-Si and Ge-Te for power generation for aerospace, Germanium satellite and space station starting power Wait.
Germanium in the semiconductor device on the application has been largely replaced by silicon, only in high-frequency high-power devices have a certain amount, Germanium the other photoelectric avalanche diode with a larger amount. The GaAs / Ge solar cells fabricated with germanium as the substrate have close performance to GaAs / GaAs batteries, have higher mechanical strength, and have a larger single cell area. In the space application environment, the anti-radiation threshold is higher than the silicon cell, Germanium the performance of the recession is small, Germanium the application cost close to the same power of the silicon panels, has been applied to all types of military satellites and some commercial satellites, and gradually become the main space power.
Germanium for medicine, such as Ge-132 [β-carboxyethyl germanium sesquioxide - (GeCH2CH2COOH) 2O3] clinical application in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Germanium BGO for X-ray, CT-instrument, PCT-instrument, for the diagnosis of tumor and bone structure and tissue necrosis. Germanium compounds and their organic compounds can be used as toothpaste and high-performance analgesic cream.
From the technical difficulty point of view, the upper reaches of the refining barriers to the lowest, but the maximum environmental pressure; intermediate links deep processing technology is difficult, high purity germanium preparation process requirements are high, Germanium but also the industry chain more profitable part of the downstream applications due to the field Wide, rapid technological progress, to maintain sustained high profitability more difficult, Germanium industry fluctuations. At present, Germanium the core of the germanium industry is still in the middle and lower reaches of the deep processing and application, Germanium if the main resource policy overweight led to production shrinkage, germanium resources will become a vital factor in industrial development.