Germanium (old translation) is a chemical element whose chemical symbol is Ge, atomic number is 32, atomic weight 72.64. In the periodic table of the chemical elements are located in the 4th cycle and the IVA family. Germanium elemental is a kind of gray classes, metal luster, qualitative hard, belong to the carbon group, chemical properties and kin tin similar to silicon, insoluble in water, hydrochloric acid, dilute caustic solution, soluble in aqua regia, concentrated nitric acid or sulfuric acid, with both sexes, therefore, soluble in the molten alkali, alkaline peroxide, alkali metal nitrate or carbonate, relatively stable in the air, in nature, a total of five germanium isotope: 70,72,73,74,76, above 700 ℃ and oxygen generated GeO2 and above 1000 ℃, with hydrogen powder germanium can burn in the presence of chlorine or bromine, germanium is excellent semiconductor, as a high frequency current detection and rectifier with alternating current (ac), in addition, can be used in the infrared materials, precision instruments, the catalyst. Germanium compounds can be used to make fluorescent panels and various refractive index glass.
The main purpose
Germanium has many special properties, in the semiconductor, aerospace measurement and control, nuclear detection, optical fiber communication, infrared optics, solar cells, chemical catalyst, biomedical and other fields have extensive and important applications, is an important strategic resource. In the electronics industry, in the pretreatment of alloys, in the optical industry, it can also be used as a catalyst.
High purity germanium is a semiconductor material. From the high purity of the germanium reduction, the smelting can be extracted. Germanium single crystal with trace specific impurities can be used to make all kinds of transistors, rectifiers and other devices. Germanium compounds are used to make fluorescent plates and various high refractive index glass.
Germanium single crystal can be transistor, is the first transistor material. Germanium is used for radiation detectors and thermoelectric materials. High purity germanium single crystal has high refractive index, and is transparent to infrared ray. It can be used as germanium window, prism or lens through infrared light. Germanium was used to treat anemia in the early 20th century and became the first semiconductor element. The refractive index of single - quality germanium is very high, it is only transparent to the infrared light, and it is not transparent to visible and ultraviolet light, so infrared night vision and other military observation devices are made of pure germanium. The compounds of germanium and niobium are superconducting materials. Germanium dioxide is polymerization catalyst, glass containing germanium dioxide has high refractive index and dispersion performance, as a wide Angle lens camera and microscope, three germanium chloride or new fiber material additives.
Over the past 2013 years, according to the data, the development of optical fiber communication industry, infrared optics in the field of military and civilian applications constantly expanding, the solar cell in the use of space, ground, concentrated solar power plants to promote efficient, global demand for germanium in steady growth.
The recovery of the global fibre market, especially in North America and Japan, has led to rapid growth in the fibre market. Global demand for fiber in the 21st century has grown by 20% a year. The future of China's optical fiber to household, 3G construction and village engineering will drive the demand for germanium in China.
Germanium's annual demand in the field of infrared optics accounts for 20-30% of germanium consumption, and germanium infrared optical devices are mainly optical materials such as lens, prism, window and filter in infrared optical system. The future demand growth of germanium products in the infrared market is mainly reflected in two aspects: the increasing modernization of military equipment has led to the demand of infrared products and the demand of the civil market for infrared products. Solar cells with germanium occupy 15% of total consumption of germanium, the solar cell field of germanium series products of future demand growth is mainly embodied in two aspects: the aerospace field and ground satellite market and the rapid development of photovoltaic industry rapid growth.
From the point of distribution of global output, China supplies 71% of the world of germanium products, is the world's largest producer and exporter of germanium, this is mainly due to the weak link of deep processing of high value-added products and technology of China, domestic demand is relatively limited, products mainly in raw product export more.
However, with the high demand, China's germanium production technology has been improved rapidly. At present, Chinese enterprises have been able to produce fiber - level, infrared and solar energy - level germanium series products. In addition, the demand for germanium in China's fiber sector has increased significantly. In 2013, the PET catalyst accounted for about 25% of germanium, and the electron solar energy accounted for about 15% of germanium, and the proportion of red foreign light was reduced from 42% to 25%, while fiber communication accounted for about 30% of the market share of germanium. In 2011, germanium consumption in China was 45 metal tons. In 2012, germanium consumption was 50 metal tons, up 11.11% year on year. Germanium consumption was 59 metal tons in 2013, up 18.00% year on year.
The role of the human body
Activate biological current, promote blood circulation, improve and prevent physical discomfort
Protect red blood cells and resist incoming radiation from damage
Metabolism, immunity to recover and improve the body's natural healing power
Anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, anti-virus
Moreover, germanium metal can function from a small amount of energy (body temperature), which enables it to function as a health care function through contact with the human body.
In 1922, American doctors learned to use inorganic germanium to treat anemia. The inorganic germanium is also used for other treatments, but the efficacy is questionable. Its effect on cancer has been discussed. The fda's study concluded that when germanium was used as a dietary supplement, it was "potentially harmful to human health".