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Titanium The Main Purpose

Oct 10, 2017

Titanium is a chemical element, chemical symbol Ti, atomic number 22, in the periodic table of chemical elements in the 4th cycle, the IVB family. It is a kind of silver - white transition metal, characterized by light weight, high strength, metallic luster and corrosion resistance to wet chlorine. Titanium but cannot be applied to dry chlorine, even the temperature below 0 ℃ dry chlorine gas, also can produce severe chemical reaction, generate titanium tetrachloride, more decomposition generated titanium dichloride, even burning. Only when the moisture content of chlorine gas is more than 0.5%, titanium can maintain reliable stability.

Titanium is considered a rare metal, because it is scattered and difficult to extract in nature. But it is relatively abundant and ranks tenth among all the elements. The titanium ore is mainly titanium iron ore and rutile, which is widely distributed in the crust and lithosphere. Titanium is also found in almost all living things, rocks, water and soil. The extraction of titanium from the main ore requires the use of the croilor or hunter method. The most common compound of titanium is titanium dioxide, which can be used to make white pigment. Other compounds include titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) (a catalyst and a cover for smoke) and titanium trichloride (TiCl3) (for catalytic polypropylene production).

Content distribution

Ten kilometers thick stratum in the earth's surface, including titanium six over one thousand, 61 times more than copper, the content is ranked 10th in the earth's crust (the elements in the crust ranking: oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, hydrogen, titanium), literally from underground grabbed a handful of earth, which contain a few parts per thousand of titanium, the world's reserves of more than ten million tons of titanium ore is not rare.

Has one hundred million tons of sand on earth, titanium and zirconium both than sandstone heavy mineral, is mixed in the sand and gravel, after water elutriation round the clock in ten million, the heavier ilmenite and zircon sand rushed together, in the long coast, formed a piece of titanium and zirconium seam of ores. The seam is a black sand, usually a few centimeters to a few inches thick. Titanium is not ferromagnetic, and a nuclear submarine built with titanium does not have to worry about a magnetic mine

Physical properties

Titanium has a metallic luster and is malleable. The density is 4.5 grams per cubic centimeter. Melting point of 1660 plus or minus 10 ℃. The boiling point of 3287 ℃. Valence + 2, +3 and + 4. Ionization energy is 6.82 electron volts. Titanium is characterized by small density, large mechanical strength and easy to process. The plasticity of titanium depends on purity. The more pure titanium, the bigger the plasticity. It has good corrosion resistance and is not affected by atmosphere and seawater. Under normal temperature, it will not be corroded by 7% or less hydrochloric acid, less than 5% of sulfuric acid, nitric acid, wang shui or dilute alkali solution. Only hydrofluoric acid, concentrated hydrochloric acid, concentrated sulfuric acid can be used to it.

Titanium is important alloy element in steel and alloy, titanium density of 4.506 4.516 g/cm3 (20 ℃), higher than aluminum and lower than that of iron, copper, nickel. But the strength is at the top of the metal. [8] to 1668 + 4 ℃, melting point 3.7 5.0 kcal/gram atom latent heat of fusion, the boiling point of 3260-20 ℃, the latent heat of vaporization 102.5 112.5 kcal/gram atom, critical temperature 4350 ℃, the critical pressure of 1130 atmospheres. The thermal conductivity and conductive properties of titanium are poor, approximate or slightly lower than stainless steel, titanium is superconducting, and the superconducting critical temperature of pure titanium is 0.38-0.4 K. At 25 ℃, titanium heat capacity of 0.126 CARDS/gram atom, enthalpy 1149 CARDS/gram atom, entropy card/gram atom 7.33 degrees, titanium is paramagnetic substance, permeability is 1.00004.

Titanium is malleable, the elongation rate of high purity titanium can reach 50 to 60 %, the reduction rate of area can reach 70-80 %, but the contraction intensity is low (namely the force that produces when shrinkage). The existence of impurities in titanium has great influence on its mechanical properties, especially the gap impurity (oxygen, nitrogen and carbon) can greatly improve the strength of titanium and reduce its plasticity significantly. Titanium is a good mechanical property of structural materials, which is achieved by strictly controlling the appropriate amount of impurities and adding alloy elements.

Equipment manufacturing

1. Reaction kettle: due to the different production process and operating conditions of the user, the heating type of the jacket is divided into the heating of electric heating rod, steam heating and heat conduction oil. Shaft sealing device is divided into packing seal and mechanical seal. The mixing type has an anchor, slurry type, pan wheel, propulsion or frame type. The number of holes, specifications or other requirements can be designed and made according to the user's requirements.

2: condenser shell and tube condenser, according to the material divided into compound titanium column condensation, titanium shell and tube condenser tube and carbon steel and titanium mixed column tube condensing three, according to the form is divided into fixed tube plate, floating-head type, U type tube heat exchanger, the structure is divided into single tube side, double tube side and tube side. The heat transfer area is 0.5 to 500m2, which can be customized according to user's requirements.

3. Can: the fermentation tank designed by our factory is the standard type tank type. The tank type is used when nominal volume is below 6m3. The cooling or heating of fermentation gas is carried out by clamping. When the nominal volume is more than 6m3, the cooling of the fermentation gas is charged by the vertical pipe, and we have improved the connection of the pipe line. This is mainly to avoid the hole in the tank and the dead Angle. This continuous method is satisfactory in practice. The fermentation equipment can be divided into two categories: one is the cone (such as alcoholic fermentation) with the anaerobic fermentation, and the other is the tank type of the gas fermentation (such as standard, five, self-absorption, etc.). This type of equipment is most commonly used in standard pot types. The data of the series drawings of fermentation tank designed by our factory are of standard type tank type. When designing all kinds of fermentation equipment, design structure, have enough strength and service life, makes every effort to internal attachment for equipment is less, the surface is smooth, notice to have good gas jujube steam contact and vapor solid mixture performance, make the material transfer, gas exchange effectively. There is sufficient heat exchange area to ensure that the fermentation can be carried out at the optimum temperature. Attach importance to the sealing performance of equipment to ensure sterilization operation.

4. Cooler:

Main application: mainly applicable to the concentration of liquid materials in pharmaceutical, food, chemical and other industrial sectors, and also can recover alcohol and simple reflux extraction. Structure: the equipment mainly consists of concentrated tank, first condenser, vapor liquid separator, second condenser, cooler and liquid barrel, all of which are made of titanium. The concentrator is the clamping structure, the condenser is the tube type, and the cooler is the tube type.