Zirconium is a chemical element. Its chemical symbol is Zr. Its atomic number is 40, which is a high melting point metal, which is light grey. Density 6.49 g/m3. The melting point of 1852 + / - 2.001 ℃, boiling point 1852 ℃. Valence + 2, +3 and + 4. The first ionization energy is 6.84 electron volts. The surface of zirconium is easy to form an oxide film and has a luster, so the appearance is similar to steel. Corrosion resistant, soluble in hydrofluoric acid and wang water, high temperature, can react with non-metallic elements and many metal elements, generate solid solution compounds. The article introduces the discovery history of zirconium, development history, physical and chemical properties, methods of preparation, distribution, use, safety measures and so on.
ZrSiO4, high refractive index of 1.93-2.01, chemical stability, is a kind of high quality, low price of opacifying agent, widely used in various construction ceramics, sanitary ceramics, ceramics for daily use, such as the level of ceramic arts and crafts production, in the production of ceramic glaze, using range is wide, are big. Zirconium silicate is widely used in ceramic production, but also because of its good chemical stability, and therefore not affected by ceramic firing atmosphere, and can significantly improve the ceramic glaze combined with performance, improve the ceramic glaze hardness. The zirconium silicate is also used in the TV industry's color picture tube, glass industry emulsified glass and enamel glaze. The melting point of zirconium silicate is high: 2,500 degrees centigrade, so it is widely used in refractory materials, glass kiln zirconium, casting materials, pouring materials and spraying coatings.
Zr index, which measures the degree of solvent degradation in the process of reprocessing. 95Zr is an important lobes, and the decomposed solvent has a highly selective retention effect on 95Zr. The larger the zirconium index, the more serious the solvent degradation. Zirconium index (Z value) measurement method is: after the extraction of organic phase by sodium hydroxide, nitric acid and water after washing, use tracer amount 95 zr balance of water phase, with 3 mol/L nitric acid wash organic phase 3, remove the TBP extraction of 95 zr. The amount of zirconium that was retained in the solvent phase was determined, and the number of moles of Zr95 per 109L solvent was the Z value of the solvent. Due to the complex behavior of zirconium in aqueous solution, the Z value can be different with different measurement conditions. Therefore, the instability coefficient is often used to characterize the stability of the solvent.
1. Convert zircon calcination into zirconium tetrachloride. The zircons are heated with coal, converted into zirconium carbide, and then chlorinated zirconium chloride, and then magnesium is reduced to make metal zirconium. The better method in industry is the production of molten salt electrolysis using ZrCl4 or K2ZrF6 as raw materials.
ZrO2 = ZrC + 2 + 3 c co write ZrC + 2 cl2 = ZrCl4 + CZrCl4 + 2 mg = Zr + 2 mgcl2
2, zircon with carbon in electric furnace heating zirconium carbide can be obtained, then in 500 ℃ will zirconium chloride available coarse carbide zirconium tetrachloride. In order to separate the hafnium, the crude tetrachloride water is dissolved, and hafnium is separated from the aqueous solution. At present, the representative solvent extraction separation method is progesterone solvent. Hafnium oxide can be achieved utilizing this method, the hafnium oxide in the presence of carbon is heated to 900 ℃, and then make it produce zirconium tetrachloride chloride, purified by distillation purification method of zirconium tetrachloride. The use of magnesium reduction is about 850 ℃, by-product magnesium chloride at about 900 ℃ can be separated by vacuum distillation to remove, finally get the sponge zirconium.
ZrSiO4 + SiO2 + 2 + 3 c = ZrC co write ZrC + 2 cl2 = ZrCl4 + CZrCl4 + 2 mg = Zr + 2 mgcl2
Zirconium, like lithium and titanium, can absorb nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen and other gases strongly. When the temperature exceeds 9 degrees Celsius, zirconium can absorb nitrogen violently. Under two degrees Celsius, 100 grams of zirconium can absorb 817 liters of hydrogen, more than 800,000 times the size of iron. The properties of zirconium has been widely used, such as in the vacuum electronic industry, the widely use of zirconium powder coated in electric vacuum components and instrumentation of the anode and the other on the surface of the heated parts, absorb the residual gas in vacuum tubes, made of high vacuum tube and other electric vacuum meter, so as to improve their quality, prolong their use of time.
Zirconium can also be used as a "vitamin" in the metallurgical industry, exerting its powerful deoxygenation, nitrogen removal and sulfur removal. The hardness and strength of a thousandth of the zirconium in the steel will increase dramatically. Armored steel, stainless steel and heat resistant steel are important materials for the manufacture of armored vehicles, tanks, artillery and bulletproof panels. With the zirconium in copper, the copper wire is drawn and the conductivity is not weakened, but the melting point is greatly improved. It is very suitable to use the high voltage wire. The zirconium zinc magnesium alloy, light and high temperature resistant, is twice as strong as ordinary magnesium alloy and can be used in the manufacture of jet engine components.
In addition, the zirconium powder is characterized by low ignition and fast burning, which can be used as the detonator of the detonating detonator, which can even explode underwater. Zirconium powder plus oxidant. It's like adding fuel to the fire, burning bright lights and making light tracers and flares.