Zirconium is a chemical element. Its chemical symbol is Zr. Its atomic number is 40, which is a high melting point metal, which is light grey. Density 6.49 g/m3. The melting point of 1852 + / - 2.001 ℃, boiling point 1852 ℃. Valence + 2, +3 and + 4. The first ionization energy is 6.84 electron volts. The surface of zirconium is easy to form an oxide film and has a luster, so the appearance is similar to steel. Corrosion resistant, soluble in hydrofluoric acid and wang water, high temperature, can react with non-metallic elements and many metal elements, generate solid solution compounds. The article introduces the discovery history of zirconium, development history, physical and chemical properties, methods of preparation, distribution, use, safety measures and so on.
Zirconium readily absorbs hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen; Zirconium's affinity for oxygen is very strong, 1000 ° C zirconium oxygen dissolved in can make its volume increased significantly. The surface of zirconium is easy to form an oxide film and has a luster, so the appearance is similar to steel. Corrosion resistant, but soluble in hydrofluoric acid and wang shui. In high temperature, it can react with non-metallic elements and many metal elements to form solid solution. The plasticity of zirconium is good, easy to be processed into plates, silk and so on. Zirconium can absorb oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and other gases during heating, and can be used as hydrogen storage material. The corrosion resistance of zirconium is better than titanium, close to niobium and tantalum. Zirconium and hafnium are two metals that are chemically similar to each other and contain radioactive substances.
1. Convert zircon calcination into zirconium tetrachloride. The zircons are heated with coal, converted into zirconium carbide, and then chlorinated zirconium chloride, and then magnesium is reduced to make metal zirconium. The better method in industry is the production of molten salt electrolysis using ZrCl4 or K2ZrF6 as raw materials.
ZrO2 = ZrC + 2 + 3 c co write ZrC + 2 cl2 = ZrCl4 + CZrCl4 + 2 mg = Zr + 2 mgcl2
2, zircon with carbon in electric furnace heating zirconium carbide can be obtained, then in 500 ℃ will zirconium chloride available coarse carbide zirconium tetrachloride. In order to separate the hafnium, the crude tetrachloride water is dissolved, and hafnium is separated from the aqueous solution. At present, the representative solvent extraction separation method is progesterone solvent. Hafnium oxide can be achieved utilizing this method, the hafnium oxide in the presence of carbon is heated to 900 ℃, and then make it produce zirconium tetrachloride chloride, purified by distillation purification method of zirconium tetrachloride. The use of magnesium reduction is about 850 ℃, by-product magnesium chloride at about 900 ℃ can be separated by vacuum distillation to remove, finally get the sponge zirconium.
ZrSiO4 + SiO2 + 2 + 3 c = ZrC co write ZrC + 2 cl2 = ZrCl4 + CZrCl4 + 2 mg = Zr + 2 mgcl2
Zirconium can also be used as a "vitamin" in the metallurgical industry, exerting its powerful deoxygenation, nitrogen removal and sulfur removal. The hardness and strength of a thousandth of the zirconium in the steel will increase dramatically. Armored steel, stainless steel and heat resistant steel are important materials for the manufacture of armored vehicles, tanks, artillery and bulletproof panels. With the zirconium in copper, the copper wire is drawn and the conductivity is not weakened, but the melting point is greatly improved. It is very suitable to use the high voltage wire. The zirconium zinc magnesium alloy, light and high temperature resistant, is twice as strong as ordinary magnesium alloy and can be used in the manufacture of jet engine components.
In addition, the zirconium powder is characterized by low ignition and fast burning, which can be used as the detonator of the detonating detonator, which can even explode underwater. Zirconium powder plus oxidant. It's like adding fuel to the fire, burning bright lights and making light tracers and flares.